I have been around this stump many a time and here we go again:
PEAK IMPACT GROUND REACTION FORCE DURING BAREFOOT AND SHOD RUNNING
Meredith, K; Castle, B; Hines, D; Oelkers, N; Peters, J; Reyes, N; Conti, C; Pollard, C; and Witzke, K
International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings: Vol. 8: Iss. 3, Article 13. 2015
Recently, barefoot running versus shod running (with shoes) has received a significant amount of attention due to variances found in ground reaction forces (GRF) between the two conditions. However, a recent meta-analysis states that there is limited research showing biomechanical differences between barefoot versus shod running. Others believe running without shoes produces lower GRFs and result in less traumatic impact and stress on the joints of the lower extremity. Analyzing and understanding these GRF differences can help researchers, physical trainers, athletes, etc., to recognize potential benefits and risks that different running styles have on the human body.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in GRFs between barefoot and shod running, focusing on the peak vertical impact forces (first peak) during running.
METHODS: Subjects included 7 female and 5 male physically active participants between the ages of 21-36y. Each subject was instructed to jog at a medium-fast, constant, self-selected pace approximately 6 m over two force plates (AMTI, 1500 Hz) while GRF’s were recorded for the left foot. Peak vertical impact force for two to three trials were averaged for each condition, barefoot and while wearing the subject’s own running shoes. A dependent t-test (SPSS v. 22) was used to test mean differences between conditions at p0.05).
CONCLUSION: This study failed to show a significant difference between peak vertical impact forces during barefoot and shod running. Future research is needed for this study with a larger sample size, perhaps looking at the differences in GRFs in subjects who habitually run barefoot versus those who do not.
I have no more information on this study than what is in the above abstract as it was presented at a conference, so a detailed analysis of the methods is not possible. Nothing in what is stated in the methods and analysis above seems problematic, but it does bear mentioning that this was an acute intervention and the results may or may not be different if the participants went through a proper period of adaptation to the two conditions.
The rhetoric and propaganda was, and to some extent still is, that barefoot or minimalist running results in less impacts and therefore is better. The above study shows that its not. This is also, however, based on the premise that impacts are even a risk factor for running injuries. As I keep pointing out, the evidence for that is far from compelling and there is even evidence that there is a less of a risk of injury if the impact forces are greater.
This study is also pretty consistent with all the other studies that I have reviewed here:
Impact Reduction Through Changing to Midfoot Strike Pattern vs Low Drop Footwear
Tibial strain and barefoot running
Increased Lower Limb Loading with use of Minimalist Running Shoes
Barefoot vs shod running: Effects on tibia loads
Rearfoot and Midfoot/Forefoot Impacts in Habitually Shod Runners
Review of Lieberman et al’s (2010) paper in Nature on Barefoot Running
It is really a bit difficult to get excited about this paper as the issue has been dealt with many times and relitigating the same old issues can get a bit depressing and boring.
As always, I go where the evidence takes me until convinced otherwise ….and this study further confirms that all the rhetoric and propaganda that has been spun in crankosphere blogosphere is yet again not supported by the evidence.
Last updated by Craig Payne.
- Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Produced in Shod Running vs. Barefoot Running
- Reduction in Ground Reaction Forces with Barefoot Running
- Muscle Activity in Barefoot vs Shod Running
- Impact loads in barefoot and shoe running
- Barefoot vs shod running: Effects on tibia loads
- Comparison of running injuries between shod and barefoot runners
- Barefoot vs Shod and patellofemoral joint stresses
- Metabolic comparison of running shod and barefoot in mid-forefoot runners
- Rearfoot and Midfoot/Forefoot Impacts in Habitually Shod Runners
- Increasing cadence and patellofemoral forces
- What happens during the swing phase that is related to impact loads?
- Impact Related Factors and Running Injury